الرئيسية / مقالات وأبحاث أثرية / STABILITY EVALAUTION OF RAMESSES II TOMB

STABILITY EVALAUTION OF RAMESSES II TOMB

STABILITY EVALAUTION OF RAMESSES II TOMB

AT THE VALLEY OF KINGS, EGYPT

Atef EL-SHABRAWI

El-Tabbin Institute of Metallurgy, Cairo.

Abdel-Fattah El-BANNA

Department of Conservation, Faculty of Archaeology,

Cairo University,Egypt

Abstract

Inthe steeply inclined western facing of Gurnah Mountain lies an ancient rock-cut tomb of Ramesses II. This tomb is founded, into the rocky mass of expansive limestone structure, and have been destroyed or severely damaged by floodwater saturating the underlying expansive shale. Understanding of the present state of stability of such burial structures needs a deep reflection covering all the factors contributing in the decaying of structure. The main contribution of this paper is to get a better understanding of the material behavior and the shale swelling mechanism with the help of numerical modeling. The Distinct Element Method was used to model the threaten structures by the code UDEC ( Itasca, 1993). To do so, a special feature was implemented in UDEC to model the mechanical behavior of swelling material. In the present paper, the authors present geotechnical properties of selected samples collected from the valley of Kings area. The results of these are then presented and discussed with respect to the stability evaluation for conservation works in that area.

Introduction

The Valley of Kings area is located in Upper Egypt near Luxor, on the western bank of the Nile. This archaeological site includes numerous tombs dating from XVIII Dynasty onwards.

Due to some geotechnical factors, several instability phenomenons have affected the conservation conditions of the tomb. Over the years, cracking, block falling and other signs of structural instability have developed. According to the field observations, the consequences of the relative movements of Rock caused by the presence of joint system, cracks rocks as well as swelling of the shale layer, are the main causes of the roof failure in this tomb.

Present research work deals essentially with the analysis of geotechnical data and attempts to present a satisfactory explanation of the observed hazards by a numerical model simulating the failure phenomenon

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